what is scientology
0 17 stycznia 2021

[23] During the 1970s Hubbard's followers engaged in a program of criminal infiltration of the U.S. government, resulting in several executives of the organization being convicted and imprisoned for multiple offenses by a U.S. Federal Court. This involved infiltrating, wiretapping, and stealing documents from the offices of Federal attorneys and the Internal Revenue Service. Karen Christensen, David Levinson (2003): Benjamin J. Hubbard/John T. Hatfield/James A. Santucci. [150], Auditing is a one-on-one session with a Scientology counselor or auditor. Vorrangig sind die folgenden: Der Mensch ist ein unsterbliches geistiges Wesen. [161] This is where Scientologists receive introductory training, and it is at this local level that most Scientologists participate. [193], The term Fair Game is used to describe policies and practices carried out against people the Church perceives as its enemies. Scientology is a movement based on a system of beliefs. [141] Scientology teaches that improving one of the three aspects of the triangle "increases the level" of the other two, but Communication is held to be the most important. [171] According to the official Church of Scientology website, "the effects of medical and psychiatric drugs, whether painkillers, tranquilizers or 'antidepressants', are as disastrous" as illegal drugs. Deze begon zijn carrière als schrijver van onder andere sciencefictionverhalen en -romans. Scientologists at advanced levels place considerable emphasis on isolating body Thetans and neutralizing their ill effects. Scientology is not a dogmatic religion in which one is asked to accept anything on faith alone. [152], Scientology uses an emotional classification system called the tone scale. Hubbard, L Ron. [309][310] A New Cult Awareness Network was set up with Scientology backing, which operates as an information and networking center for non-traditional religions, referring callers to academics and other experts. Hubbard was complaining of not being able to make a living on what he was being paid as a science fiction writer. [52][53] Parsons and Hubbard collaborated on the "Babalon Working", a sex magic ritual intended to summon an incarnation of Babalon, the supreme Thelemite Goddess. [82], Hubbard became the leader of a growing Dianetics movement. [149] Scientology's utopian aim is to "clear the planet", that is, clear all people in the world of their engrams. (Family Division), London, July 23, 1984, "Recognition was based upon voluminous information provided by the Church regarding its financial and other operations to the Internal Revenue Service." [313] This resulted in a battle between the Church of Scientology and its online critics over the right to disclose this material, or safeguard its confidentiality. [382][383] In December 2013, the United Kingdom's highest court officially recognized Scientology as a religion. [326] Subsequently, the group Anonymous voiced its criticism of Scientology and began attacking the Church. [351][352][353][354] Recognition came in 1993,[366] when the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) stated that "[Scientology is] operated exclusively for religious and charitable purposes. [320][321] Former Scientologist Tory Christman later asserted that the Office of Special Affairs had undertaken a concerted effort to destroy alt.religion.scientology through these means; the effort failed. [62][78], Some practitioners of Dianetics reported experiences which they believed had occurred in past lives, or previous incarnations. Hubbard lived there for the next seven years. Church of Scientology International v. Time Warner, Inc., et al. Passas, Nikos, and Manuel Escamilla Castillo. [141] The universe has no independent reality but derives its apparent reality from the fact that Thetans agree it exists. [371] IRS officials "insisted that Scientology's tactics had not affected the decision" and that "ultimately the decision was made on a legal basis". [175], Excerpts and descriptions of OT materials were published online by a former member in 1995 and then circulated in mainstream media. [443] According to Hubbard himself, Scientology is "the Western anglicized continuance of many early forms of wisdom". Cookies and social media plugins allow us among other things to offer you the best possible user experience, to show you relevant messages and to collect statistical information regarding our website. "[257] As stated in Scientology doctrine: "The whole agonized future of this planet, every man, woman and child on it, and your own destiny for the next endless trillions of years depend on what you do here and now with and in Scientology. [184][185] Scientology disconnection policy prohibits most contact with Suppressive Persons. [151] Instead, the auditor's task is to help a person discover and understand the universal principles of affinity, reality, and communication (ARC). The Church of Scientology and its A-List supporters are not backing down so easily following a controversial lawsuit, a source exclusively reveals in the new issue of Us Weekly — details [160] The Church of Scientology claims it is the only effective way to deal with the long-term effects of drug abuse or toxic exposure. Los Angeles, California: Bridge Publications, 2007: 3. Either way, Scientology is perhaps most different from other UFO groups in their attempt to keep all of the space opera stuff under wraps. This mainly happened when he had to deal with apparent memories from former lives. On January 24, 1986, L. Ron Hubbard died at his ranch in Creston, California. [387] The IRS cited a statement frequently attributed to Hubbard that the way to get rich was to found a religion. [485], This article is about the belief system and practices. 'Dianetics: The Modern Science of Mental Health'. – The Atlantic", "Belgium will try two Scientology organizations and 10 Scientologists for fraud ' The Underground Bunker", "Our man in Europe reports on Belgium's criminal prosecution of Scientology ' The Underground Bunker", "Scientology: Belgium court acquits church of organised crime charges – ABC News (Australian Broadcasting Corporation)", "News and Notes: Scientology Libel Action", "Exclusive: 'Tom Cruise: An Unauthorized Biography' – Read an excerpt from Andrew Morton's controversial new book", "Scientology Accused of Human Trafficking", "Scientologists forced me to have two abortions", "Scientologists forced me to have two abortions, ex-disciple says", "Scientologists pressured me to have abortions", "Church of Scientology accused of torture and forced abortions", "Australian PM voices 'concerns' over Scientology", "Scientology faces allegations of abuse and covering up deaths in Australia", "Scientology faces allegations of torture in Australia: Australian prime minister considers inquiry after senator tables allegations including forced abortions, assault and blackmail", "Pressure mounts for Scientology inquiry", "Church attacked for 'criminal' activities", "Scientologists reject claims they forced abortions", "Lawsuits against the Church of Scientology are piling up, alleging a vast network of human trafficking, child abuse, and forced labor", "Group that once criticized Scientologists now owned by one", "A Letter from the Church of Scientology", "Anonymous threatens to "dismantle" Church of Scientology via internet", "Hacker Group Declares War On Scientology: Group Upset Over Church's Handling Of Tom Cruise Video", "Anonymous hackers take on the Church of Scientology", "Online group declares war on Scientology", "War Breaks Out Between Hackers and Scientology – There Can Be Only One", "Where to find the Tom Cruise Scientology videos online, if they're still posted", "Internet Group Declares "War on Scientology": Anonymous are fighting the Church of Scientology and the Religious Technology Center", "Anonymous Versus Scientology: Cyber Criminals or Vigilante Justice? [452][453] In addition to the links to Hindu texts, Scientology draws from Taoism and Buddhism. [267][29], In 2012, Belgian prosecutors indicted Scientology as a criminal organization engaged in fraud Joseph Cheesman Thompson, a U.S. Navy officer who had studied with Freud[448] and when writing to the American Psychological Association in 1949, he stated that he was conducting research based on the "early work of Freud". [393][394] Commenting on the matter, a spokesman for the U.S. Department of State said that Scientologists were discriminated against in Germany, but condemned the comparisons to the Nazis' treatment of Jews as extremely inappropriate, as did a United Nations Special Rapporteur. [173][424] Melton suggests that these elements of the OT levels may never have been intended as descriptions of historical events and that, like other religious mythology, they may have their truth in the realities of the body and mind which they symbolize. Members can disconnect from any person they already know, including existing family members. [223] In a Church of Scientology policy letter in 1973, L. Ron Hubbard wrote, "The purpose of [the] Celebrity Centre is, to forward the expansion and popularization of Scientology through the arts. [285], In 2003, The Times of India reported "Forced abortions, beatings, starvation are considered tools of discipline in this church [sic]". [101] The second local Church of Scientology to be set up, after the one in California, was in Auckland, New Zealand. For more information about the processing of personal data, please consult our Privacy Policy. [181], A 2001 survey estimated that 55,000 people in the United States claimed to be Scientologists. Scientology is the same thing and it is the Church of Scientology by name as there is not church or denomination called Christian Science. And a third is its religious status in the United States, formalized when the IRS granted the organization tax-exempt status in 1993. Scientology does not preach or impose a particular idea of God on Scientologists. [62] He became a popular lecturer and established the Hubbard Dianetic Research Foundation in Elizabeth, New Jersey, where he trained his first Dianetics counselors or auditors. : The Church of Scientology takes up a new weapon – the Digital Millennium Copyright Act – in its ongoing battle with critics", "Former Scientology film crew member describes surveillance activities in Ingleside on the Bay", "In new year's message, Scientology insider blasts 'extreme' fundraising", "Does Scientology have a concept of God? [323][324][325] [88][89][90] In December 1952, the Hubbard Dianetic Foundation filed for bankruptcy, and Hubbard lost control of the Dianetics trademark and copyrights to financier Don Purcell. [455][456], In the 1940s, Hubbard was in contact with Jack Parsons, a rocket scientist and member of the Ordo Templi Orientis then led by Aleister Crowley, and there have been suggestions that this connection influenced some of the ideas and symbols of Scientology. [23][76][77] According to religious studies professor Paul Gutjahr, Dianetics is the bestselling non-Christian religious book of the century. | Scientology's views on the evils of materialism", "Scientology loss keeps hyperlinks legal", "A Place in the Desert for New Mexico's Most Exclusive Circles", "In Pasadena, a Model for Scientology's Growth Plan", "Scientologists: How Many Of Them Are There, Anyway? What are some of the core tenets of Scientology? [25] The policy remains in effect and has been defended by the Church of Scientology as a core religious practice. [161][162] Narconon is offered in the United States, Canada and a number of European countries; its Purification Program also uses high-dose vitamins and extended sauna sessions, combined with auditing and study. These are the OT levels, the levels above Clear, whose contents are guarded within Scientology. In The New Word (1901) poet and lawyer Allen Upward first used scientology to mean blind, unthinking acceptance of scientific doctrine (compare scientism). Dianetics was organized and centralized to consolidate power under Hubbard, and groups that were previously recruited into Dianetics were no longer permitted to organize autonomously. If you're curious about exploring and joining Scientology, distinguishing fact from fiction is your first step. ", "Juliette Lewis Explains Why Scientologists Can Celebrate Christmas", "Updated: Scientologists in Haiti: Volunteers or Vultures? [299] "I am deeply concerned about this organisation and the devastating impact it can have on its followers," said Senator Xenophon, and he requested that the Australian Senate begin an investigation into Scientology. [264] Among these documents was a plan to frame Gabe Cazares, the mayor of Clearwater, Florida, with a staged hit-and-run accident. Having run out of depth charges and with the presence of a submarine still unconfirmed by other ships, Hubbard's ship was ordered back to port. [417], Frank K. Flinn, adjunct professor of religious studies at Washington University in St. Louis wrote, "it is abundantly clear that Scientology has both the typical forms of ceremonial and celebratory worship and its own unique form of spiritual life. Scientology has had a long run of devil’s luck, other than perhaps just the Snow White episode, that has allowed them to more or less get away with imagining that they don’t have to be “reasonable” and deal with reality – and even often with dodging … ", "Scientology's Puzzling Journey From Tax Rebel to Tax Exempt", "Church of Scientology & IRS Confidentiality", "IRS examined Scientology dollars, not dogma", "CHURCH OF SCIENTOLOGY: Two former ministers' lawsuit loses on appeal", "Scientology Denies an Account Of an Impromptu IRS Meeting", "2007 U.S. State Department – 2007 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Portugal", "Cienciología entre las "entidades religiosas, "La justice espagnole accorde à la Scientologie le statut de religion", "Decision of 13 March 2000 registering Scientology as a "religious community" in Sweden", "U.S. State Department – 2005 Report on International Religious Freedom: Kyrgyzstan", Introduction to New and Alternative Religions in America, "Scientology tax victory could cost Revenue millions", "UK Supreme Court says Scientology is a religion, allows wedding", "Scientology is a religion, rules Supreme Court", "Britain Recognizes Scientology As A Religion", Zur Frage der Beobachtung der Scientology-Organisation durch die Verfassungsschutzbehörden, "German Party Replies To Scientology Backers", "Does Germany Have Something Against These Guys? [408] While introductory courses do not cost much, courses at the higher levels may cost several thousand dollars each. [454] According to the Encyclopedia of Community, Scientology "shows affinities with Buddhism and a remarkable similarity to first-century Gnosticism". Learn More. [141] However, these services and the clergy who perform them play only a minor role in Scientologists' religious lives. Urban, Hubbard's early science of Dianetics would be best comprehended as a "bricolage that brought together his various explorations in psychology, hypnosis, and science fiction". Melton, J. Gordon (2000). [184][185] The Church of Scientology denies that a disconnection policy exists, and quotes Hubbard's definition of disconnection as "a self-determined decision made by an individual that he is not going to be connected to another". Bill Robertson, a former Sea Org member, was a primary instigator of the movement in the early 1980s. Salt Lake City: Signature Press. [334], On January 28, 2008, an Anonymous video appeared on YouTube calling for protests outside Church of Scientology centers on February 10, 2008. "[142], L. Ron Hubbard described the analytical mind in terms of a computer: "the analytical mind is not just a good computer, it is a perfect computer." [243] Scientology encourages existing members to "sell" Scientology to others by paying a commission to those who recruit new members. Developed by L. Ron Hubbard, Scientology is a religion that offers a precise path leading to a complete and certain understanding of one’s true spiritual nature and one’s relationship to self, family, groups, Mankind, all life forms, the material universe, the … [141] Ordained Scientology ministers may perform such rites. Another was a 1991 Time magazine article that attacked the organization, which responded with a major lawsuit that was rejected by the court as baseless early in 1992. Reporting stomach pains in April 1945, he spent the remainder of the war as a patient in Oak Knoll Naval Hospital in Oakland, California. [382] In the UK, the Charity Commission for England and Wales ruled in 1999 that Scientology was not a religion and refused to register the organization as a charity, although a year later, it was recognized as a not-for-profit body in a separate proceeding by the UK Revenue and Customs and exempted from UK value added tax. Developed by L. Ron Hubbard, Scientology is a religion that offers a precise path leading to a complete and certain understanding of one’s true spiritual nature and one’s relationship to self, family, groups, Mankind, all life forms, the material universe, the spiritual universe and the Supreme Being. In 1983 the High Court of Australia ruled in a unanimous decision that the Church of Scientology was "undoubtedly a religion and deserving of tax exemption". [355][356] The organization has pursued an extensive public relations campaign for the recognition of Scientology as a tax-exempt religion in the various countries in which it exists. [155][157] The remaining dynamics encompass wider fields of action, involving groups, mankind, all life, the physical universe, the spirit, and infinity, often associated with the Supreme Being. [183], The Office of Special Affairs or OSA (formerly the Guardian's Office) is a department of the Church of Scientology which has been characterized as a non-state intelligence agency. [369], The New York Times noted in this connection that the Church of Scientology had funded a campaign which included a whistle-blower organization to publicly attack the IRS, as well as hiring of private investigators to look into the private lives of IRS officials. [183] The RPF involves a daily regimen of five hours of auditing or studying, eight hours of work, often physical labor, such as building renovation, and at least seven hours of sleep. It claims copyright and trademark over its "Scientology cross", and its lawyers have threatened lawsuits against individuals and organizations who have published the image in books and on Web sites. [9] Hubbard initially developed a set of ideas which he represented as a form of therapy, called Dianetics. [155] The optimum solution to any problem is believed to be the one that brings the greatest benefit to the greatest number of dynamics. [426][427][428], Hubbard grew up in a climate that was very critical of organized religion, and frequently quoted anti-religious sentiments in his early lectures. [102], The Scientology organization experienced further challenges. [120][121][122], On January 1, 1982, Miscavige established the Religious Technology Center (RTC). [230] Notable examples include: The Church of Scientology began its "Volunteer Ministers" program as a way to participate in community outreach projects. He had to defend himself about this to his friends. The source noted that "And if members who have been in the Sea Organization for, say, 10 years do decide to have kids, they are dismissed with no more than $1,000" as a severance package.[287]. It may be a religion but I don’t believe it is Christian but from the other source other than God if you know what I mean. [272] Journalists, politicians, former Scientologists and various anti-cult groups have made accusations of wrongdoing against Scientology since the 1960s, and Scientology has targeted these critics – almost without exception – for retaliation, in the form of lawsuits and public counter-accusations of personal wrongdoing. Remini spoke about her split from the Church, saying that she still has friends within the organization whom she is no longer able to speak with.[260]. [190] A minority of governments regard it as a religious organization entitled to tax-exempt status, while other governments variously classify it as a business, cult, pseudoreligion, or criminal organization. He also states that without the e-meter, "Scientology could not have achieved whatever status it enjoys as a new religious movement." [84][72], Also in 1951, Hubbard incorporated the electropsychometer (E-meter for short), a kind of electrodermal activity meter, as an auditing aid. Some of the DMCA's provisions (notably the Online Copyright Infringement Liability Limitation Act) were heavily influenced by Church litigation against US Internet service providers over copyrighted Scientology materials that had been posted or uploaded through their servers. [446] Sigmund Freud's psychology, popularized in the 1930s and 1940s, was a key contributor to the Dianetics therapy model, and was acknowledged unreservedly as such by Hubbard in his early works. [463] He also wrote: Hypnotism plants, by positive suggestion, one or another form of insanity. [403] The status was revoked in October 2015. In May 1952, Scientology was organized to put this intended science into practice, and in the same year, Hubbard published a new set of teachings as Scientology, a religious philosophy. [131][132] He described Scientology as an "applied religious philosophy" because, according to him, it consists of a metaphysical doctrine, a theory of psychology, and teachings in morality. [58], In May 1950, Hubbard's Dianetics: The Evolution of a Science was published by pulp magazine Astounding Science Fiction. WHAT IS SCIENTOLOGY? [213], A 1990 article in the Los Angeles Times reported that in the 1980s the Church more commonly used private investigators, including former and current Los Angeles police officers, to give themselves a layer of protection in case embarrassing tactics were used and became public.[214]. Lewis wrote, "Scientology sees their psycho-spiritual technology as supplying the missing ingredient in existing technologies—namely, the therapeutic engineering of the human psyche."[460].

What Is The Meaning Of Processing Of Personal Data, Glassfish Vs Tomcat Performance, Prepper Homes For Sale In West Virginia, Beinn Dearg & Carn A Chlamain, Chicago Bullet Skates Toe Stops, Fran Beer Photo, Gram Dal In Tamil, Scratch Mit Edu Projects Editor Tutorial Getstarted,