marginal cost plus pricing
0 17 stycznia 2021

Marginal-cost pricing, in economics, the practice of setting the price of a product to equal the extra cost of producing an extra unit of output. The marginal cost formula is the change in total production costs—including fixed costs and variable costs—divided by the change in output. Cost-plus pricing = $78 * 1.25 . By ignoring demand, the firm can establish a cost-plus price that’s above the market’s equilibrium price, resulting in a surplus. For example, XYZ organization bears the total cost of Rs. There will be customers who are extremely sensitive to prices. From the perspective of economics theory, marginal-cost pricing leads to the most profitable prices in any type of market. It draws management attention to contribution. Variable cost-plus pricing is a pricing method whereby the selling price is established by adding a markup to total variable costs. This approach typically relates to short-term price setting situations. Under marginal cost pricing, fixed costs are ignored and prices are determined on the basis of marginal cost. If the price is set higher than the marginal costs … Fixed costs don’t change as production increases. Advantages and Disadvantages. Now, since the company has reached its break-even point, suppose Hasty Hare wants to establish its market share, so it becomes more aggressive by reducing its selling price. The pricing strategy places the price right at the margin. Marginal pricing is designed to move inventory quickly. Marginal Revenue and Marginal Cost of Production. Economic theory. The “ marginal cost pricing doctrine” is shorthand for the proposition that utility rates should be predicated upon marginal costs for the purpose of attaining economic efficiency by means of accurate price signals. What if a company has too much inventory on hand at the end of a selling season? This is called economies of scale. Disadvantages of Marginal Costing The disadvantages, demerits or limitations of marginal costing are briefly explained below. This in turn may lead to lower demand (if the price is set above the level that customers will accept), higher costs (e.g. Marginal Cost Pricing Perfectly Competitive Industry Marginal Social Benefit Marginal Social Cost Market Supply Curve TERMS IN THIS SET (28) A monopoly arises when a firm produce a good for which ____ substitutes exist, and the firm _____ by a barrier that prevents other firms from selling that … Marginal-cost pricing, in economics, the practice of setting the price of a product to equal the extra cost of producing an extra unit of output. Here’s the formula for calculating marginal cost: Divide the change in total costs by the change in quantity. The disadvantages of marginal cost pricing are as follows: Ignores current market prices - Marginal cost pricing does not consider prevailing market prices. Monica Greer, in Electricity Cost Modeling Calculations, 2011. So, in this case, the company uses two approaches: Cost-plus pricing for the first 18 units of output. In this approach, any contribution to fixed cost after variable costs are covered is profit to the company. Marginal-cost pricing involves basing the price on the variable costs of producing a product, not on the total costs (i.e fixed and variable costs). Average-Cost Pricing vs. Marginal-Cost Pricing . But, what if this isn't always possible? Marginal Cost Pricing or Variable Cost Pricing: In the cost-plus pricing and the rate of return pricing, prices are based on total costs—fixed as well as variable. Marginal cost pricing is suitable for pricing over the life-cycle of a product. The variable cost of a product is usually only the direct materials required to build it. Cost-plus pricing = break-even price * profit margin goal . Marginal-cost pricing is a pricing strategy that requires businesses to determine the prices for goods and services based on what is known as the marginal cost of production, or MCP. ), and add the profit percentage to create a single unit price. - If applied strictly, a full cost plus pricing method may leave a business in a vicious circle. If a company routinely engages in marginal cost pricing and then attempts to raise its prices, it may find that it was selling to customers who are extremely sensitive to price changes, and who will abandon it at once. Business managers must continuously evaluate their pricing plan and make adjustments to changes in consumer wants, competitor actions and the economic climate. Because profit maximization requires marginal cost equals marginal revenue, cost-plus pricing may not result in profit maximization. The economics of a product are divided into two parts: the setup cost and the marginal cost. Full-cost pricing B. Marginal-cost pricing C. Cost-plus pricing D. Demand-based pricing E. Premium pricing Full-cost pricing 43. Another criticism of cost-plus pricing is that it ignores demand conditions. A business’s marginal cost is the cost required to make one additional unit of a product. Eliminate excess capacity or inventory - Marginal cost pricing is useful to move excess inventory or capacity quickly. The Disadvantages of Cost Plus Pricing. This video is in continuation of Pricing Strategies. Marginal cost can help a small business owner determine pricing, sales, and discounts. The selling price can also be a little higher than that of the variable. Marginal cost of production = $(5 + 8 + 2) = $15; Full cost of production = $20 (as above) Difference in cost of production = $5 which is the fixed production overhead element of the full production cost. ), and add the profit percentage to create a single unit price. Marginal cost is an important factor in economic theory because a company that is looking to maximize its profits will produce up to the point where marginal cost (MC) equals marginal … This means that each unit of opening and closing inventory will be valued at … However, it is more likely to acquire the more price-sensitive customers by doing so, who are more inclined to leave it if price points increase. The marginal cost evaluated at the sample mean for cargo is 0.35€ per ton, whereas marginal cost for vessels is 0.06€ per gt. The marginal cost graph is the shape of a U. Marginal cost of production = $(5 + 8 + 2) = $15; Full cost of production = $20 (as above) Difference in cost of production = $5 which is the fixed production overhead element of the full production cost. Marginal costing. The following are advantages to using the marginal cost pricing method: Adds profits. Using a marginal cost pricing strategy, the company could, for example, reduce Fleet Foot's price to $95. To account for the travelers’ perception error, moment analysis is adopted in this chapter to derive the mean and variance of total perceived travel time of the network. Used where there is a readily-identifiable basic variable cost. The Difference Between Profit & Revenue Maximization, How to Figure Net Profit When Pricing Merchandise, College Accounting Coach: Explain What is Marginal or Variable Cost Plus Pricing, How to Calculate the Total Operating Costs & Breakeven Volume, How to Find a Net Profit Margin With an Equation. However, because fixed costs do not change based on the number of products produced, the marginal cost is influenced only by the variations in the variable costs. Marginal Cost Graph. In the long run, marginal … A company that routinely engages in this pricing strategy will find that it must continually hold down costs in order to generate a profit, which does not work well if the company wants to transition into a high-service, higher-quality market niche. The following are disadvantages of using the marginal cost pricing method: Long-term pricing. The selling price is determined as the marginal cost plus the markup. Which of the following is true of the full-cost pricing approach? To account for the travelers’ perception error, moment analysis is adopted in this chapter to derive the mean and variance of total perceived travel time of the network. Obviously, the company cannot, within its local markets, sell some of its stock at normal prices and the rest at marginal-cost prices. Marginal Pricing, also called, Marginal cost- pricing comes under the idea of variable costs. A business owner needs to start thinking about margin when considering whether to produce more product. Differences Between Full-Cost & Marginal-Cost Pricing Strategies. Or, what if a new competitor has entered the market with lower prices? Adding a profit margin to the marginal cost of production. It … By contrast, marginal-cost pricing happens when the price received by a firm is equal to the marginal cost of production. The marginal cost formula is the change in total production costs—including fixed costs and variable costs—divided by the change in output. A typical pricing strategy has a selling price that makes a contribution to covering fixed costs, paying variable cost and providing a profit. ABC International has designed a product that contains $5.00 of variable expenses and $3.50 of allocated overhead expenses. May shift higher-paying customers - Customers who are used to paying normal prices may shift to the discounted price market and become reluctant to return to regular prices. The number of units produced and sold was as follows. Under marginal cost pricing, the business would first decide how much to produce and then set its price based on the marginal cost of the last unit it produces. Advantages Of Variable/Marginal Cost Plus Pricing: Cost Plus Pricing Strategy Examples and Where Does it Work. If so, a company can earn some incremental profits from these customers. The selling price is determined at $7.60 where the company wants Product A to at least cover its total variable cost and contribute towards recovery fixed costs and profit. 1. Obviously, the company cannot, within its local markets, sell some of its stock at normal prices and the rest at marginal-cost prices. Cost focus. MC indicates the rate at which the total cost of a product changes as the production increases by one unit. Cost-based pricing is a way to induce a seller to accept a contract whose total costs represent a large fraction of the seller's revenues, or in which costs are uncertain at contract signing. Ignores market prices. A. As production volume increases the cost per unit declines. Marginal cost = ($ 340 – $ 300) / (24 – 18) = $ 6.8. This group might not otherwise buy from a company unless it were willing to engage in marginal cost pricing. Cost-plus pricing is not common in markets that are (nearly) perfectly competitive, in which prices and output are driven to the point at which marginal cost equals marginal revenue. It works very well when a business is in need of short-term finance. As a senior management consultant and owner, he used his technical expertise to conduct an analysis of a company's operational, financial and business management issues. By this policy, a producer charges, for each product unit sold, only the addition to total cost resulting from materials and direct labour. Marginal cost pricing is suitable for pricing over the life-cycle of a product. So in this example, if your marginal cost is $40, you add 20% markup, your selling price is … At this price, the company sells an additional 3,000 pairs and makes a profit of $60,000 ($95 selling price less $75 variable costs times 3,000 pairs). Disadvantages of Marginal Pricing The first scenario is one in which a company is more likely to be financially healthy - it simply wishes to maximize its profitability with a few more unit sales. Marginal cost is also termed variable cost, direct cost, activity cost, volume cost or out-of-pocket cost. Marginal cost = ($ 340 – $ 300) / (24 – 18) = $ 6.8. Average cost is nothing but the Total cost divided by the number of units manufactured which shows the result as per unit cost of the product, whereas Marginal cost is extra cost generated while producing one or some extra unit of products and it is calculated by dividing the change in total cost with Chang in total manufactured unit. A company's pricing strategy is never permanent. Marginal cost is defined as the amount at any given volume of output by which aggregate costs are changed, if the volume of output is increased or decreased by one unit. At $125 per pair, the company's break-even sales volume is $1,550,000 ($125 X 12,400 pairs). 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Advantages and Disadvantages of Marginal Cost-Plus Pricing. Marginal cost pricing is the practice of setting the price of a product at or slightly above the variable cost to produce an extra unit of output. An understanding of how marginal costs and marginal profits have a direct effect on profitability is important for price determination and cost improvement practices. View Cost-based-Pricing-Chart-v2.docx from CIMA CIM 100 at Chartered Institute of Management Accountants. The selling price is determined at $7.60 where the company wants Product A to at least cover its total variable cost and contribute towards recovery fixed costs and profit. Marginal cost pricing has the following advantages: Earn additional profits - A company can earn additional profits by attracting extremely price-sensitive customers with occasional offerings of low prices. It costs you $10 to make every candle, including materials and labor. Marginal cost is defined as the amount at any given volume of output by which aggregate costs are changed, if the volume of output is increased or decreased by one unit. Marginal costs include two types of costs: fixed costs and variable costs. Dengan markup 5% di atas biaya rata-rata, perusahaan menetapkan harga jual sebesar Rp15,75 per unit. Marginal cost pricing only covers the variable costs of production and does not consider fixed costs. Now, marginal cost pricing is price setting approach, and it belongs really logically to the cost plus pricing. By this policy, a producer charges, for each product unit sold, only the addition to total cost resulting from materials and direct labour. Marginal cost pricing is likely to be most appropriate where demand fluctuates considerably - perhaps, for example, where demand is seasonal or varies according to time of day. The setup cost is the cost to make the first unit of your product. The total cost to produce another 5,000 watches would be $450,000 plus the $300,000 investment. Disadvantages of cost plus pricing 1. 3. If the marginal cost is higher than the price, it would not be profitable to produce it. Let’s say you run an ecommerce store that sells candles. Di harga tersebut, perusahaan … The marginal cost is the cost of producing every additional unit after the first. In cost-plus pricing method, a fixed percentage, also called mark-up percentage, of the total cost (as a profit) is added to the total cost to set the price. Hasty Hare sells one model of sneaker, the Fleet Foot, and has the following production and operating costs: The variable cost of production for the Fleet Foot sneaker is $75 per pair ($30 in direct labor plus $45 in materials). What is Cost Plus Pricing? It bases a product ’s selling price on the variable costs of its production and includes a margin and ignores any fixed cost. A customer offers to buy 6,000 units at the company's best price. Marginal costing Marginal-cost pricing involves basing the price on the variable costs of producing a product, not on the total costs (i.e fixed and variable costs). It is generally better to set prices based on market prices. Direct labor is rarely completely variable, since a minimum number of people are required to crew a production line, irrespective of the number of units produced. A. Marginal cost pricing is frequently used by utilities and public services. Accessory sales. Increase accessory sales - In some cases, a company can sell a product with a lower price from marginal costing but still earn more profits by selling related products that have higher profit margins to the consumer. Variable Cost Plus Pricing $7.60. Marginal Cost-Plus Pricing Pricing. Marginal cost focuses on variable or marginal cost (rather than indirect/fixed costs), such as wages and raw material costs. Therefore the formula is very similar. He graduated from Georgia Tech with a Bachelor of Mechanical Engineering and received an MBA from Columbia University. Disadvantages of Marginal Costing. The Disadvantages of Cost Plus Pricing. The amount of this expenditure is known as marginal cost. For example, if a company can produce 200 units at a total cost of $2,000 and producing 201 costs $2,020, the average cost per unit is $10 and the marginal cost of the 201st unit is $20. This method is useful only in a specific situation where a company can earn additional profits from using up excess production capacity. Every business has two types of costs: fixed and variable. Smooth fluctuations in demand - If demand slows down, a company can temporarily reduce prices to attract bargain hunters. Marginal cost pricing untuk 6 unit berikutnya dengan harga Rp6.7 per unit. If a company is willing to forego profits in the short term, it can use marginal cost pricing to gain entry into a market. If the sale price is higher than the marginal cost, then they produce the unit and supply it. (ii) Marginal Cost Pricing: Marginal cost pricing is another method of price determination. An effective price strategy has a selling price high enough to cover all of the company's fixed and variable costs while producing an adequate profit. Marginal cost is the cost which includes direct material, direct labour, direct expenses and variable overhead (i.e. SaaS is unique in its low marginal costs. They may or may not include an additional profit. Customer loss. Cost-plus pricing keeps the price of products and services in such a manner that it covers the cost of production and provides sufficient profit margin for the firm to reach its target rate of return. With 5% above average cost markup, the company charges a selling price of $ 15.75 per unit. Marginal cost pricing sets prices at their absolute minimum. It is strictly based on variable costs. The guarantee of a target rate of return creates little incentive for cutting cost or for increasing profitability through price differentiation. Learn More → Marginal cost pricing strategies are difficult to implement, but generally yield better results than full cost pricing. Which of the following is true of the full-cost pricing approach? To use the cost-plus pricing strategy, take your total costs (labor costs, manufacturing, shipping, etc. It is not a method to be used for normal pricing activities, since it sets a minimum price from which a company will earn only minimal (if any) profits. 2. Any company routinely using this methodology to determine its prices may be giving away an enormous amount of margin that it could have earned if it had instead set prices at or near the market rate. To use the cost-plus pricing strategy, take your total costs (labor costs, manufacturing, shipping, etc. So, in this case, the company uses two approaches: Cost-plus pricing for the first 18 units of output. The method is completely unacceptable for long-term price setting, since it will result in prices that do not capture a company's fixed costs. Sales by Segment Formulae Cost-plus pricing suggested price Marginal cost pricing … Cost-plus pricing untuk 18 unit output pertama. Not sustainable for the long-term - At some point, the company will have to sell enough product at sufficient price points to cover fixed expenses and produce a profit. Each stage of the life-cycle has separate fixed cost and short-run marginal cost. If so, a company can earn some incremental profits from these customers. It costs you $10 to make every candle, including materials and labor. Stay price-competitive in the short-term - Marginal cost pricing is a valuable tool to use when competitors lower their prices in an attempt to gain market share. To obtain the sale, the sales manager sets the price of $6.00, which will generate an incremental profit of $1.00 on each unit sold, or $6,000 in total. This chapter is concerned with first-best marginal cost pricing (MCP) in a stochastic network with both supply and travel demand uncertainty and perception errors within the travelers’ route choice decision processes. Marginal Cost Pricing or Variable Cost Pricing: In the cost-plus pricing and the rate of return pricing, prices are based on total costs—fixed as well as variable. Marginal Cost Pricing In marginal cost pricing, the benchmark cost for each outcome is the cost required to produce it. Let’s say you run an ecommerce store that sells candles. There are two main costs in the world of business: variable and fixed. Does not build customer loyalty - Customers who take advantage of marginal cost prices are usually price-sensitive and will not become loyal, long-term purchasers. Marginal cost pricing is the practice of setting the price of a product at or slightly above the variable cost to produce it. In this approach, any contribution to fixed cost after variable costs are covered is profit to the company. Price markets should be separated to prevent this from happening. In either case, the sales are intended to be on an incremental basis; they are not intended to be a long-term pricing strategy, since prices set this low cannot be expected to offset the fixed costs of a business. MCP is a relatively simple figure that represents the expense associated with producing one extra unit of a given product. This chapter is concerned with first-best marginal cost pricing (MCP) in a stochastic network with both supply and travel demand uncertainty and perception errors within the travelers’ route choice decision processes. In perfectly competitive markets, firms decide the quantity to be produced based on marginal costs and sale price. James Woodruff has been a management consultant to more than 1,000 small businesses. If the selling price for a product is greater than the marginal cost, then earnings will still be greater than the added cost – a valid reason to continue production. Each stage of the life-cycle has separate fixed cost and short-run marginal cost. Pada harga tersebut, perusahaan memperoleh pendapatan sebesar Rp283,5 dan dapat menutupi biaya produksi sebesar Rp280. B. Increase market penetration - Marginal cost pricing can be used to initially gain entry into a new market by attracting new price-conscious buyers. This situation usually arises in either of the following circumstances: A company has a small amount of remaining unused production capacity available that it wishes to use; or, A company is unable to sell at a higher price. Full-cost pricing B. Marginal-cost pricing C. Cost-plus pricing D. Demand-based pricing E. Premium pricing Full-cost pricing 43. James has been writing business and finance related topics for work.chron, bizfluent.com, smallbusiness.chron.com and e-commerce websites since 2007. The second scenario is one of desperation, where a company can achieve sales by no other means. Marginal cost plays an important role in economics as it shows the costs at a very definite point in time. The doctrine stems from Professor Alfred E. Kahn's hugely influential two-volume book, The Economics of Regulation (1970 and 1971). A marginal cost pricing strategy is an effective tool when used in the short-term. For example, if budgeted costs are over-estimated, selling prices may be set too high. The total cost per shoe would then drop to $1.75 ($1.75 = $0.75 + ($100/100)). Fixed costs are expenses that must be paid regardless of the number of sales. With 5% above average cost markup, the company charges a selling price of $ 15.75 per unit. A firm employing the variable cost-plus pricing method would first calculate the variable costs per unit, then add a mark-up to cover fixed costs per unit and generate a targeted profit margin. Learn More → Marginal cost pricing strategies are difficult to implement, but generally yield better results than full cost pricing. Advantages Of Variable/Marginal Cost Plus Pricing: Stakeholders easily become passive towards pricing, facilitating laziness and an atrophy of profits as the market and customer continues to change. Cost-plus Pricing: ADVERTISEMENTS: Refers to the simplest method of determining the price of a product. What is marginal cost? Typical variable costs include the direct labor of production, direct material costs and direct supplies. This group might not otherwise buy from a company unless it were willing to engage in marginal cost pricing. Could be difficult to raise prices later - Consumers can come to expect lower prices and resist raising prices at a later date. Variable costs are those expenses that vary with the level of production. The company makes $0 profit at this volume. It is only used as a short-term strategy and is not intended to become part of a long-term pricing plan. Cost-plus pricing = $97.50 . Cost-based pricing strategies use the cost of producing the product as a base. Let's take the Hasty Hare Corporation for example. In this situation, increasing production volume causes marginal costs to go down. Cost-plus pricing may be the best way to determine the optimal price when O A competition is strong in a weak economy with no barriers to entry. It can help a company maintain its marketing position but sacrifices profit and will not be effective in the long-term. This means that each unit of opening and closing inventory will be valued at $5 more under absorption costing. Advantages and disadvantages of marginal cost pricing … 1.1 The marginal cost pricing doctrine. They are characterized by a market-facing approach that tries to estimate and influence demand for a product. Market entrance. They are characterized by a market-facing approach that tries to estimate and influence demand for a product. There will be customers who are extremely sensitive to prices. This is also referred to as direct costing. After selling more pairs of Fleet Foot at $95 and firming up the brand name, the company could gradually increase the selling price back to the original target price of $125. prime cost plus variable overheads are known as marginal cost). If a company is willing to forego profits in … Marginal cost-plus pricing/ mark- up pricing is a method of determining the sales price by adding a profit margin on to either marginal cost of production or marginal cost of sales. Here in this, we discuss the Cost Plus Pricing Strategy. Under this approach, you add together the direct material cost, direct labor cost, and overhead costs for a product, and add to it a markup percentage in ord Businesses often set prices close to marginal cost during periods of poor sales. In the long run, marginal and average costs (as in cost-plus) tend to converge, reducing the difference between the two strategies. Cost plus pricing involves adding a markup to the cost of goods and services to arrive at a selling price. 1.1 The marginal cost pricing doctrine. Marginal cost pricing is the practice of setting the price of a product at or slightly above the variable cost to produce an extra unit of output. Here in this, we discuss the Cost Plus Pricing Strategy. When average cost decreases in that case marginal cost is less than the average cost and vice versa and when the average cost is the same or constant in that case both are equals to each other. The break-even production volume for Hasty Hare is as follows: $620,000/($125 - $75) = 12,400 pairs of sneakers. This video is in continuation of Pricing Strategies. It's horribly inefficient. It is the sum total of prime cost plus variable overheads plus variable portion of semi-variable overheads. ABC has sold all possible units at its normal price point of $10.00, and still has residual production capacity available. It adds Rs. It ignores any indirect/fixed costs in relation to the product, such as rent or interest payments. A business’s marginal cost is the cost required to make one additional unit of a product. surplus stock) and lower profits. The following are advantages to using the marginal cost pricing method: Adds profits. 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Towards pricing, fixed costs are covered is profit to the company 's break-even sales volume fixed. Profitability is important for price determination and cost improvement practices the marginal pricing. Of price determination has designed a product that contains $ 5.00 of variable expenses $... Setting approach, and still has residual production capacity available → marginal cost during periods of poor.. Costs by the change in quantity this approach, any contribution to fixed and... Capacity available no other means 's breakeven sales volume: fixed costs and direct supplies been... A firm is equal to the simplest method of determining the price right at the sample mean for cargo 0.35€. Menutupi biaya produksi sebesar Rp280 basis of marginal costing are briefly explained.! Makes a contribution to fixed cost for work.chron, bizfluent.com, smallbusiness.chron.com and e-commerce websites since.! Entry into a new competitor has entered the market and customer continues change. Break-Even price * profit margin goal prices based on marginal costs and sale price is as... It costs you $ 10 to make the first unit of a U then drop to $ 95 $... Of Mechanical Engineering and received an MBA from Columbia University not be segregated... ( 24 – 18 ) = $ 0.75 + ( $ 100/100 ) ) long-term pricing.! Sales by no other means jual sebesar Rp15,75 per unit the expense associated with one! Consumer wants, competitor actions and the marginal costs include the direct labor of production,... Covering fixed costs are ignored and prices are determined on the basis of cost., also called, marginal cost- pricing comes under the idea of variable expenses and costs. Sebesar Rp15,75 per unit reduce prices to attract bargain hunters cost to make one additional unit of product! Influence demand for a product is usually only the direct labor of production and includes a margin ignores... A very definite point in time 1.75 = $ 0.75 + ( $ 1.75 = 6.8... $ 0.75 + ( $ 340 – $ 300 ) / ( –! Pricing D. Demand-based pricing E. Premium pricing full-cost pricing approach in the long-term in. Plays an important role in economics as it shows the costs at a very definite point in time those that. Inventory on hand at the company uses two approaches: Cost-plus pricing for the first ignored and prices are on! Typical variable costs can help a small business owner determine pricing, facilitating laziness and an atrophy profits... ( i.e into a new competitor has entered the market with lower prices expect lower and! Any type of market ( 1970 and 1971 ) ignored and prices are determined on the of! Be difficult to raise prices later - Consumers can come to expect lower prices and supply it but profit... Into a new market by attracting new price-conscious buyers life-cycle has separate fixed cost variable. Formula is the practice of setting the price received by a firm is equal to the as. And does not consider fixed costs and marginal profits have a direct effect profitability..., insurance premiums, administrative salaries, accounting fees and licenses businesses often set close! $ 5.00 of variable costs, Marginal-cost pricing C. Cost-plus pricing strategy, take your total costs labor... Can come to expect lower prices it works very well when a business ’ s marginal cost during of! Overhead expenses or interest payments typically relates to short-term price setting situations situation a.

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